Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteomes. A proteome is a set of proteins produced in an organism, system, or biological context. We may refer to, for instance, the proteome of a species (for example, Homo sapiens) or an organ (for example, the liver). The proteome is not constant; it differs from cell to cell and changes over time. To some degree, the proteome reflects the underlying transcriptome. However, protein activity (often assessed by the reaction rate of the processes in which the protein is involved) is also modulated by many factors in addition to the expression level of the relevant gene. Several high-throughput technologies have been developed to investigate proteomes in depth. The most commonly applied are mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques such as Tandem-MS and gel-based techniques such as differential in-gel electrophoresis
(DIGE). These high-throughput technologies generate huge amounts of data.
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