Primary Health Care: Open Access

ISSN - 2167-1079

Pre-testicular Causes

Male infertility is diagnosed by a complete medical history involving a detailed evaluation of development, family conditions, and lifestyle patterns and habits.  Genetic testing may also be indicated. Physical examination may include: Semen analysis - at least two semen examples are collected on separate days to examine the semen and sperm for various factors, such as semen volume, consistency, and pH, and the sperm count, motility, and morphology (shape). Hormonal assessment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis Additional testing to examine sperm viability, DNA integrity or evidence of oxidative damage may also be ordered.

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