Inflammatory Immune Reconstitution Syndrome in HIV-Positive Patients | Abstract

Journal of HIV and AIDS Research


Inflammatory Immune Reconstitution Syndrome in HIV-Positive Patients

Michael Alumuku*

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is becoming more widely available around the world. IRIS (immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome) is a typical side effect after starting ART. We present an overview of the clinical and epidemiological aspects of HIV-associated IRIS, as well as current understanding of pathophysiological causes, accessible medication, and prevention methods in this review. The HIV-associated IRIS spectrum is discussed, with a focus on three major pathogenassociated forms: tuberculosis-associated IRIS, cryptococcal IRIS, and Kaposi's sarcoma IRIS. While clinical characteristics and epidemiology are well understood, there are significant gaps in our understanding of pathophysiology, resulting in inadequate treatment and prevention interventions. To reduce IRIS-related morbidity, the timing of ART introduction is crucial. Improved diagnostic techniques and better focused treatments will presumably result from a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of IRIS.