Lessons from cathepsin deficient mice on human brain diseases | 48484

Journal of Neurology & Neurophysiology

ISSN - 2155-9562

Lessons from cathepsin deficient mice on human brain diseases

4th International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics

July 27-29, 2015 Rome, Italy

Hiroshi Nakanishi

Scientific Tracks Abstracts: J Neurol Neurophysiol

Abstract :

A group of proteases in the endosomal/lysosomalproteolytic system have been designated as cathepsins, which is derived
from the Greek term meaning “to digest”. Considering that cathepsins can irreversibly cleave peptide bonds, the primary
function of cathepsins has been believed to be their “disintegration actions”. However, there is increasing evidence that
cathepsins can also exert “modulator actions” by which substrates are activated after limited cleavage. For examples, we have
recently found that cathepsin B (CatB) is involved in the maturation of pro-IL-1 through proteolytic activation of pro-caspase-1
in the autophagosomes of spinal microglia following peripheral inflammation, leading to the induction and maintenance of
inflammatory pain. On the other hand, cathepsin S (CatS) is involved in proteolytic processing of the MHC class II-associated
invariant chain in splenicdendritic cells following peripheral nerve injury, leading to activation of CD4+ T cells. Infiltration of
activated CD4+ T cells may contribute to transition of nerve injury-induced acute pain to a chronic pain state. Beyond a bulk
proteolysis in the endosomal/lysosomal system, the growing understanding of modulator actions of cathepsins in microglia and
other mononuclear phagocytes could contribute to the development of protease inhibitors as therapeutic interventions against
brain diseases associated with chronic inflammation and immune response.

Biography :

Hiroshi Nakanishi is currently a Professor of Department of Aging Science and Pharmacology, Kyushu University, Japan. He completed his PhD in Kyushu
University and his post-doctoral trainingin the University of Tennessee at Memphis. He became a Professor of Laboratory of Oral Aging Science, Kyushu University
in 2000. He was the Dean of Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University from 2011 to 2013. He is now the vice Dean Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University
from 2014. His research is focusing on the physiological and pathological functions of microglia in the central nervous system.