The Effectiveness of Therapy Based on Acceptance and Commitment S

Clinical and Experimental Psychology

Research Article - (2016) Volume 2, Issue 3

The Effectiveness of Therapy Based on Acceptance and Commitment Social Anxiety and General Self-Efficacy on Divorced Women Under Welfare Organization in Yazd

Mozhgan Shaker1, Mehdi Rahimi2* and Maryam Zare2
1Department of Clinical Psychology, Yazd Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran
2Department of Education and Psychology, Faculty of Humanity Sciences, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Mehdi Rahimi, Department of Education and Psychology, Faculty of Humanity Sciences, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran, Tel: + 38 (066) 955 02 25 Email:


This research is carried out targeting the assessment of effectiveness of group therapy based on acceptance and commitment on social avoidance and general self-efficiency among the divorced women from Yazd City who are supported by Welfare Organization. At first, two centers were selected among the clinics and communities associated with Welfare using availability method, the women were asked to complete the questionnaires on social pressure, and avoidance and general the next stage, 60 people who scored the least from the questionnaires were randomly divided into two test and control groups. Then 8 therapy sessions were held for the test group. In the meantime, the control group received no therapy. After these sessions, both groups were posttested again. The result of covariance analysis showed that in the post-test of the test group, the social avoidance score decreased. Therefore, we could conclude that group training of this therapy is effective on decreasing the social avoidance of general self-efficiency of divorced women.

Keywords: Commitment and acceptance based therapy, Social avoidance, General self-efficiency, Divorce


Family has a important and effective role amongst the social organizations and institutions. In other words, family is the foundation of society. Moreover, this institute provides its members with the feeling of comfort and safety. It is among the most lasting institute within a thousand years, which preserve the cultural characteristics, and is the agent of transferring them to the next generation. When the desired functions of family are faced with serious difficulties and continuing of marriage will gain more troubles than the consequences of divorce, Islam has given the order to proximity and preponderance and even the necessity to divorce. Divorce is one of the most important phenomena of humankind’s life, which interfere with both mental balance of couple and their kids and close relatives.

Effects of divorce are not just on family members but also the social effects should not be ignored. No doubt some young offenders are from families with mental and emotional disorders are a family conflict. The criminal psychology of social deviance and socially disadvantaged groups or community rejection and emotional injuries sometimes result in children in families of divorce is detected [1-5].

Among the problems after the divorce, economic hardship and psychological problems of anxiety and depression (each with 41 percent) the most problems is people, especially women after divorce (and healthy). Almost certainly we can say that some of the abnormal gene underlying pathological anxiety states, and on the other hand evidence suggests that traumatic life events and stress also are important in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Kendall Treadwell (1996, quoted Moore 3, 2010) Believe those who are anxious more negative statements about themselves to people who are not distressed. Some adults with anxiety, avoiding social situations 4 and with a few friends and are more likely to have lower unemployment and social Persons of their abilities are less anxious waiting for them at the moment of anxiety focused on cognitive processes that makes these people have low self-efficacy perception and people who are self- 6 to easily helplessness poor.

Since when families break apart, women and children experienced the biggest drop in living standards And Divorced women after divorce, loneliness and lack. It makes them bitter and painful in public and avoid its functionality and performance at a low level due to the mentioned factors and evaluate the important role of women in society, necessity It is felt that these women can take Rabala automatically because your Amadi Amadi up automatically lead to better management issues in the family. And also makes the inevitable fear in the community, to appropriate interactions with community members make sense of their lives once again. Hayes findings, Pystrvla suggests that treatment based on acceptance and commitment as integrated model for behavior modification that focuses on six main processes (reception, faulting 10 itself, time, values and practice committed) acts and these processes have only a single goal and that mental flexibility, and stated that this treatment can positively change people’s behavior and personal development and provide developmental fields [6-12].

This study attempts to Examine whether a group based on acceptance and commitment therapy can reduce social anxiety and general self-efficacy in increasing divorced women.

Research Hypotheses

The main hypothesis

Is Group Based on acceptance and commitment therapy to reduce social anxiety and Increase the efficacy of divorced women under welfare organization Yazd City.

Lateral hypothesis

Is Group Acceptance and commitment therapy based on reducing social avoidance under welfare organization becomes divorced women?.

Research background

Examined the relationship between social anxiety and social self-efficacy and body image among female students of Islamic Azad University Branch have conducted research on 240 students The results of their study showed a significant negative correlation between social anxiety and body image, but there is a positive relationship between social self-efficacy and body image. Stated that people who have body image dissatisfaction, fear of negative evaluation more to evaluate the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on pain and pain-related anxiety and pain acceptance of male patients with chronic pain have a sample consisted of 30 male patients with chronic pain, and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were referred Sheltered 8 sessions of group therapy were based on acceptance and commitment and the results showed that treatment with increased acceptance of pain and anxiety associated with pain and severity of pain [13-16].

The population in this study, 30 women betrayed referred to counseling centers in Shiraz who were randomly divided into experimental group in 10 sessions and each session for 90 minutes as based on acceptance and commitment treatment groups was the results showed that the treatment is effective on forgiveness and marital adjustment.

They were told that measures should be taken of nurse managers of self-efficacy do in order to by increasing self-motivation increases. As well as their results showed that self-efficacy is associated with age and education related to gender. When self-development and development will also find motivation in his study based on acceptance and commitment therapy for psychological adjustment, social adults with stuttering, on 20 adults who stutter have worked Oct 8 consecutive weeks, the results showed that an integrated program treatment as an effective intervention in mental function, prepare for change and treatment is effective. It also improves mental health and reduce the negative impact on the course of their lives is stuttering.

Research method

The aim of the present study is an applied research component. The purpose of this research is to find principles that are applied in real situations and practical product improvement and efficiency and help procedures. And in terms of data collection of quasi-experimental research is. Once this plan is that the main purpose of research, experiment and the reaction is Asrkhasy. In this study, the independent variable period based on acceptance and commitment therapy and social variables and general self-efficacy is avoided [17-23].

In this study, the subjects were randomly selected and divided into two groups: experimental and control as much as possible with both groups and the results of the test of both groups are in order to assess dependent variable comparison.

The population and sample

The population in this study consisted of all divorced women under welfare organization in the city of Yazd is that, in order to determine the minimum sample size required, firstly to approach from those clinics and centers affiliated to the center of the women’s well-being 2 asked social avoidance and general self-efficacy questionnaire and the pressure was complete. And then 60 people who received the lowest score from the questionnaires were randomly assigned to two groups of 30-person experimental and control groups.


In this study, a sample size of 60 patients was determined randomly in two groups of 30 people (a test group and a control group) were divided and inventory pressure, and social avoidance Watson and Friend and general self efficacy questionnaire Schwartz and Jerusalem were distributed among them. The course of treatment based on acceptance and commitment in 8 sessions on the experimental group was only 90 minutes. During this period, the control group did not receive anything. After the course is based on acceptance and commitment therapy on experimental group and avoid social pressure and general self-efficacy questionnaire of both groups were (Table 1).

Statistical analysis methods

In this study, statistical methods, descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS software. Used. In this study, the descriptive statistics of the maximum and minimum mean, standard deviation data, frequency tables and charts have been used as well as inferential statistics is because of the type of intervention that includes analysis of covariance is used. Information collected in two descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS software and analyzed [24-30].

Descriptive findings

Table 2 shows the age breakdown of the sample group membership control and experimental groups show. As is evident in the experimental group members form samples were distributed almost evenly between age groups, but in the control group, most members are aged between 32 and 38 years.

In addition, Table 3 educational status of members of the sample to show the breakdown of membership in the experimental and control groups. As is evident, in both experimental and control groups, mostly members of the sample group of people have formed a high school diploma. The following Table 4 shows the mean and standard deviation variables to separate membership in the experimental and control groups, respectively.

Pre- test scores and avoid social pressure : 18.31
General self � efficacy pre � test scores : 21.86
Relationship therapy Education on family management after
divorce How divorce in family interacts and has become
a problem in their life Education and acceptance and
commitment therapy and its goals Metaphor two mountains
First session
Frustration is not the solution, it's the problem
Survey the specific control strategies that a person has
already been used Survey the costs and damages that
this strategies have in life Survey the effects of this control
strategies Introduce control strategies as a problem
Metaphor a person in the well
Second session
Introduce and promote its adoption
Focusing on control as a useless strategy in dealing with
anxiety Outside control against internal Metaphor of two
scales Metaphor tug monsters Guest metaphor and pauper
Third session
Not admixture cognitive Fiber himself Introduce kinds of itself
Metaphor bus Metaphor chess surface
Fourth & fifth
Teach aware mind strategy to promote life in every moment
Teach aware mind for daily Do aware mind exercises of
breath, mind and ignition
Sixth session
Clarify values ( prior to be valuable ) The primary easurement
values Exercises to clarify values
Seventh session
Create larger patterns act responsibly Setting goals
Identify internal and external obstacles Generalizing skills
to act responsibly The scores after pressure and social
avoidance : 8.23 General self � test scores : 32.33
Eighth session

Table 1: Methods in this study were designed in eight � 60 minutes.


In this section to test the research, hypotheses will be discussed. To evaluate the effectiveness of therapy based on acceptance and commitment on the dependent variables of the study used analysis of covariance. For this purpose, the assumptions were studied. In this regard, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test normal distribution of variables was investigated. Table 4 shows the results of this test.

Group Age Number Percentage
test 18 � 24 6 20
  25 â�� 31 8 26.7
  32 â�� 38 8 26.7
  39 â�� 45 8 26.7
  total 30 100
Control 18 -24 5 16.7
  25 â�� 31 9 36.7
  32 â�� 38 11 30
  39 â�� 45 5 16.7
  Total 30 100

Table 2: The age distribution of the sample group.

Group Education Number Percentage  
Test High school diploma 21 70  
  Diploma 8 26.7  
  Associate degree & B.A. 0 0  
  M.A. 1 3.3  
  total 30 100  
Control Lower school diploma 15 50  
  Diploma 9 30  
  Associate degree & B.A. 6 20  
  M.A. 0 0
  Total 30 100

Table 3: Education distributed sample.

Group Variable Group average Standard deviation min max
Test Social avoidance Pre test 18.13 6.62 1 27
    Posttest 8.23 6.62 1 26
  General self â�� efficacy Pre test 21.86 7.26 11 36
    Posttest 32.33 5.56 17 40
Control Social avoidance Pre test 16.63 7.27 4 27
    Posttest 15.33 4.53 4 21
  General self - efficacy Pre test 22.13 7.75 11 36
    Posttest 21.96 6.91 11 37

Table 4: The mean and standard deviation of variables.

Based on Table 5, the distribution of all the variables are not significantly different from the normal distribution. So the research hypotheses can be used parametric tests. Linearity of the relationship between pre-test and post-test followed by dispersion charts were reviewed and approved scatter plots related to social anxiety and selfefficacy.

Based on Table 6, the distribution of all the variables are not significantly different from the normal distribution. So the research hypotheses can be used parametric tests. Next, the homogeneity of the pre-test and post-test slope of the regression dependent variables in experimental and control groups were analyzed by analysis of variance. Table 7 shows the results [31-35].

As Table 8 shows, the interaction was not significant, the slope of the regression dependent variable of the pre-test in both groups are homogeneous. In addition, Table 8 Levin to study the homogeneity of variance test results in two experimental and control groups, respectively.

The results show that the variance is homogeneous in the variable social avoidance, but in the case of self-efficacy variable was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups variance there. But since the number of members of both groups is the same, we can not ignore the violation of assumptions. Therefore, in accordance with the basic assumptions of analysis of covariance, continuing research hypotheses are tested.

Hypothesis based on acceptance and commitment therapy, reduces social anxiety. To investigate this hypothesis of covariance was used. So social avoidance test between the experimental and control groups were compared with control pilot. Table 9 shows the results of analysis of covariance.

The results in Table 9 show that the two experimental groups and one control with pilot control are significant differences in terms of social avoidance and membership in the experimental group, 36% of the variance is explained by social anxiety.

The results show that membership in the group has been able to avoid testing and treatment community to substantially reduce than the control group.

The Theoretical Explanation of Findings

The first about the effectiveness of group therapy based on acceptance and commitment on the reduction of divorced women had social anxiety, social avoidance average 23/8 X = experimental group and the control group was 33/15 X =. By comparing these scores determine which treatment is effective in reducing social anxiety. Given the low scores on scales measuring social avoidance symptoms less inevitable decrease reflects the scores after the intervention treatment success.

Second hypothesis, on the effectiveness of group therapy based on acceptance and commitment to increasing the efficacy of divorced women. Results obtained in the second hypothesis suggests that education based on acceptance and commitment group therapy, efficacy in this group of people has increased. Mean efficacy in the treatment group 33/32 X = In the control group 13/2 2 X = respectively. By comparing the average can be concluded that the training group therapy based on acceptance and commitment in the experimental group had an impact [36-40].

Research Limitations

This study has limitations such as a lack of suitable locations, funding, lack of cooperation by some authorities, and the inability researcher has faced in controlling unwanted variables. Due to time constraints, follow the continuity of results obtained in this study was not possible.

Research Proposals

  Circumstantial evidence Free degree significant
  Social avoidance 0.104 60 0.16
General self � efficacy 0.10 60 0.20

Table 5: Normality test results.

Variable   Source variance ss df ms f p
  Social avoidance Pre test 450.37 11 40.94 1.29 0.28
General self â�� efficacy   Pre test 532.12 12 4.343 2.18 0.06

Table 6:Levine test to check the homogeneity of variance.

  Variable F DF1 DF2 P
Social avoidance   3.15 1 58 0.08
General self - efficacy   4.21 1 58 0.04

Table 7: Covariance analysis of social avoidance.

 Source SS DF MS F P Eta Square
Pre test  258.49 1 258.49 10.15 0.002 0.15
group  846.05 1 846.05 33.22 0.001 0.36
 error 1451.53 57 25.46      
 total 2466.18 59        

Table 8: Adjusted average social avoidance.

  Group Average Standard error
  Test 8 0.92
  Control 15.56 0.92

Table 9: Adjusted average standard error.

In this section, according to the results of applied research proposals being presented to the authorities. In addition to practical proposals, suggestions and recommendations for future research are presented to researchers in this field to new research opens the door steps enrichment research and theoretical literature are in the field.


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Citation: Shaker M, Rahimi M, Zare M (2016) The Effectiveness of Therapy Based on Acceptance and Commitment Social Anxiety and General Self-Efficacy on Divorced Women Under Welfare Organization in Yazd. Clin Exp Psychol 2:137.

Copyright: © 2016 Shaker M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.