Journal of Health and Medical Research

Unani Medicine

"Unani" or "Yunani medicine" (Urdu: طب یونانی tibb yÅ«nānÄ«[1]) is the term for Perso-Arabic traditional medicine as practiced in Mughal India and in Muslim culture in South Asia and modern day Central Asia The term YÅ«nānÄ« means "Greek",[2][3] as the Perso-Arabic system of medicine was based on the teachings of the Greek physicians Hippocrates and Galen.[4]   The Hellenistic origin of Unani medicine is still visible in its being based on the classical four humours: phlegm (balgham), blood (dam), yellow bile (á¹£afrā) and black bile (saudā'), but it has also been influenced by Indian and Chinese traditional systems.[5]   The Supreme Court of India and Indian Medical Association regard unqualified practitioners of Unani, Ayurveda and Siddha medicine as quackery.[6][7][8] Practitioners of alternative medicine, including those practicing Unani medicine, are not authorized to practice medicine in India unless trained at a qualified medical institution, registered with the government, and listed as physicians annually in The Gazette of India.[6][8] Identifying practitioners of Unani medicine, the Supreme Court of India stated in 2018 that "unqualified, untrained quacks are posing a great risk to the entire society and playing with the lives of people without having the requisite training and education in the science from approved institutions"   Arab and Persian elaborations upon the Greek system of medicine by figures like Ibn Sina and al-Razi influenced the early development of Unani. The medical tradition of medieval Islam was introduced to India by the 13th century with the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate and it took its own course of development during the Mughal Empire,[11][12] influenced by Indian medical teachings of Sushruta and Charaka. Alauddin Khalji (d. 1316) had several eminent physicians (Hakims) at his royal courts.[15] This royal patronage led to the development of Unani in India, and also the creation of Unani literature. According to Unani medicine, management of any disease depends upon the diagnosis of disease. Proper diagnosis depends upon observation of the patient's symptoms and temperament. Unani, like Ayurveda, is based on theory of the presence of the elements in the human body. According to followers of Unani medicine, these elements are present in fluids and their balance leads to health and their imbalance leads to illness.\ According to Unani practitioners, the failure of the Quwwat-e-Mudabbira-e-Badan, or the body's ability to maintain its own health, may lead to derangement of the normal equilibrium of the body's akhlat (humors). Abnormal humors are believed to lead to pathological changes in the tissues at the affected site, creating the clinical manifestations of illness. The theory postulates the presence of blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile in the human body. Each person's unique mixture of these substances determines his mizaj (temperament). A predominance of blood gives a sanguine temperament; a predominance of phlegm makes one phlegmatic; yellow bile, bilious (or choleric); and black bile, melancholic. After diagnosing the disease, treatment follows a pattern: Izalae Sabab (elimination of cause) Tadeele Akhlat (normalization of humors) Tadeele Aza (normalization of tissues/organs) Treatment includes regimental therapy known as Ilaj-Bil-Tadbeer. These therapies include cupping, aromatherapy, bloodletting, bathing, exercise, and dalak (massaging the body). It may also involve the prescription of Unani drugs or surgery.[18][19] Unani products like egg oil and almond oil are commonly used for hair care in India, and registered Unani practitioners are treated as qualified doctors in India and Pakistan.

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