Health Economics & Outcome Research: Open Access

ISSN - 2471-268X

Spinal Bifida Peer Review Journals

Spina bifida is a birth defect in which there is incomplete closing of the spine and the membranes around the spinal cord during early development in pregnancy. There are three main types: spina bifida occulta, meningocele and myelomeningocele. The most common location is the lower back, but in rare cases it may be in the middle back or neck. Occulta has no or only mild signs, which may include a hairy patch, dimple, dark spot or swelling on the back at the site of the gap in the spine. Meningocele typically causes mild problems, with a sac of fluid present at the gap in the spine. Myelomeningocele, also known as open spina bifida, is the most severe form. Problems associated with this form include poor ability to walk, impaired bladder or bowel control, accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), a tethered spinal cord and latex allergy. Learning problems are relatively uncommon. Spina bifida is believed to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. After having one child with the condition, or if one of the parents has the condition, there is a 4% chance that the next child will also be affected. Not having enough folate (vitamin B9) in the diet before and during pregnancy also plays a significant role. Other risk factors include certain antiseizure medications, obesity and poorly controlled diabetes.

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