Social Sciences are those disciplines that study (a) institutions and functioning of human society and the interpersonal relationships of individuals as members of society; (b) a particular phase or aspect of human society. Social Sciences include social and behavioral sciences and encompass areas such as sociology, economics, law, political science, anthropology, archeology, history, psychology, geography, business, decision sciences, criminal justice, administration, military science, naval science, library science, ethnic, gender, and culture studies, information science, interdisciplinary application studies, research methodology social sciences, etc. Social sciences help to explain how society works, exploring everything from the triggers of economic growth and causes of unemployment to what makes people happy. This information is vital and can be used for many purposes. Among other things, it helps to shape corporate strategies and government policies. Social science as a field of study is separate from the natural sciences, which cover topics such as physics, biology, and chemistry. Social science examines the relationships between individuals and societies, as well as the development and operation of societies, rather than studying the physical world. These academic disciplines rely more heavily on interpretation and qualitative research methodologies. History is also sometimes regarded as a social science, although many historians often consider the subject to share closer links to the humanities. Both humanities and social sciences study human beings. What separates them is technique: humanities are viewed as more philosophical and less scientific. Law, too, has some ties to social sciences, as does geography. Social science as an academic field of study developed out of the Age of Enlightenment (or the Age of Reason), which flourished through much of the 18th century in Europe. Adam Smith, Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Denis Diderot, Immanuel Kant, and David Hume were among the big intellectuals at the time who laid the foundations for the study of social sciences in the Western World.