Clinical and Experimental Psychology


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints. It typically results in warm, swollen, and painful joints.Pain and stiffness often worsen following rest.Most commonly, the wrist and hands are involved, with the same joints typically involved on both sides of the body. The disease may additionally affect other components of the body. This may result in a low red blood cell count, inflammation around the lungs, and inflammation around the heart.Pyrexia and low energy may withal be present.Often, symptoms come on gradually over weeks to months. While the cause of rheumatoid arthritis is not pellucid, it is believed to involve an amalgamation of genetic and environmental factors.The underlying mechanism involves the body's immune system assailing the joints. This results in inflammation and thickening of the joint capsule It additionally affects the underlying bone and cartilage. The diagnosis is made mostly on the substratum of a person's signs and symptoms. X-rays and laboratory testing may support a diagnosis or omit other diseases with kindred symptoms.Other diseases that may present similarly include systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriatic arthritis, and fibromyalgia among others.The goals of treatment are to abbreviate pain, decrement inflammation, and ameliorate a person's overall functioning.This may be availed by balancing rest and exercise, the utilization of splints and braces, or the utilization of assistive contrivances. Pain medications, steroids, and NSAIDs are frequently used to avail with symptoms.Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), such as hydroxychloroquine and methotrexate, may be habituated to endeavor to slow the progression of disease. Biological DMARDs may be used when disease does not respond to other treatments. However, they may have a more preponderant rate of unpropitious effects. Surgery to rehabilitate, supersede, or fuse joints may avail in certain situations. Most alternative medicine treatments are not fortified by evidence. 

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