Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of the medicine (especially pharmaceutical drugs). The effects can include those manifested within animals (including humans), microorganisms, or combinations of organisms (for example, infection). Pharmacodynamics
are the most branches of pharmacology, being itself a subject of biology
curious about the study of the interactions between both endogenous and exogenous chemical substances with living organisms. In particular, pharmacodynamics
is the study of how a drug affects an organism, whereas pharmacokinetics
is that the study of how the organism affects the drug. Both together influence dosing, benefit, and adverse effects. Pharmacodynamics
is usually abbreviated as PD and pharmacokinetics
as PK, especially in combined reference.
Relevant Topics in Pharmaceutical Sciences