Gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumors
(NETs) are rare neoplasms, although their prevalence
has increased substantially over the past three decades. Moreover, there has been an increased clinical recognition and characterization of those neoplasms. They show extremely variable biological behavior and clinical course. Most NETs have endocrine function and secrete peptides
and neuroamines that cause distinct clinical syndromes, including carcinoid syndrome; however, many are clinically silent until late presentation with mass effects. Investigation and management
should be individualized for every patient, taking under consideration the likely explanation of the tumor
and general health
of the patient. Management
strategies include surgery for cure or palliation, and a spread of other cytoreductive techniques, and medical treatment including chemotherapy, and biotherapy to regulate symptoms thanks to hormone
release and tumor
growth, with somatostatin analogues (SSAs) and alpha-interferon. New biological agents and somatostatin-tagged radionuclides are under investigation. Advances within the therapy and development of centers of excellence which coordinate multicenter studies, are needed to enhance diagnosis, treatment and thus survival of patients with GEP NETs.
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the gastro-entero-pancreatic
(GEP) system are rare and originate from the diffused system , located within the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract (carcinoids) and within the pancreas (insular tumors), with extremely varying clinical pictures. GEP NETs represent about 2% of all the GI tumors, but their prevalence
has increased substantially over the past three decades, only partially as a consequence of increased awareness and improved diagnostic techniques. the foremost recent estimates suggest a worldwide clinical incidence of two .5-5 cases/100 000 per annum , with an autoptical incidence 2-5 times above the clinical one, and a small predominance in females.
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