The accuracy of orthopantomography in reproducing the temporomandibular joint area was analyzed on a dry skull. The results based on this study of a single skull revealed that the radiographic image of the temporomandibular joint did not correspond to the anatomic condylar and fossa components or to their actual relationship. To a large extent, changes in skull position affected the radiographictemporomandibular joint image, simulating anterior condylar flattening, osteophytes, narrowing of joint space, and left/right condylar asymmetry. Orthopantomography may have questionable reliability for temporomandibular joint diagnostic purposes. Disease processes involving these ligaments leads to various spectrums of aliments extending from backache to deformities and nerve entrapments. Aims and Objectives: To study the Anterior and Posterior longitudinal ligament and note the incidence of different types of ossification and the other associated features in various levels of the vertebral column.
Relevant Topics in Medical Sciences