Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Risk Factors and Management Strategies

International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health

ISSN - 1840-4529

Commentary - (2021) Volume 13, Issue 8

Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Risk Factors and Management Strategies

Anurag Aggarwal*
*Correspondence: Anurag Aggarwal, Department of Community Medicine and School of Public Health, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, California, United States, Email:

Author info »


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most frequent cancer in the world and the third main cause of cancer death. PVTT (portal vein tumor thrombosis) is a common side effect of HCC. Approximately. When 10–40% of patients have PVTT on a macroscopic level, HCC is identified for the first time. Patients with HCC are more difficult to treat.PVTT are diagnoized by an illness that is aggressive disease. Blocking the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway with immunomodulatory drugs. The underlying explanation for these medicines' efficacy could be the selective expression of PD-L1 with dominant immune-suppressive actions in the tumors microenvironment (TME), which promotes a better tumors response-to-toxicity ratio .To boost anti-tumor immunity.

Risk Factors and Management Strategies

Diagnosis is without pathologic confirmation, the diagnosis is confirmed. At 6-month intervals, radiologic tests such as ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are used, as well as serological indicators such as-fetoprotein. There is several therapeutic options available, but only orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) or surgical excision is curative. Patients who require OLT can get it. The objective of HCC should be to reduce mortality and improve patient outcomes. Early detection of HCC has been shown to improve patient survival in studies. 50% Patients who are discovered early have more treatment options, which lead to better outcomes. In today's escalating health-care expenses, defining the target audience should be a top focus, as surveillance for the general public is expensive. HCC is the fifth most prevalent cancer in men (7.5%) and the ninth most common cancer in women (3.4%). HCC is the second and sixth most common cancer in men and women in Egypt. This gender disparity can be explained by two factors: biological and environmental factors. The level of oestrogen ho is a biological basis for the variance in HCC incidence in women. The association of family history of HCC to the HCC risk has been reported through heritable factors and modified by environmental factors. In Egypt, 21.4 percent of HCC patients had a history of the disease in their family (first and second degrees relatives). There are several screening guidelines available for high-risk individuals. Cirrhosis patients are among the people in this group. And/or infection with HBV/HCV (with or without cirrhosis). Methods of screening and surveillance intervals are discussed. The most significant distinctions between these standards although these principles had a significant impact on medical practice, however HCC mortality is high due to a lack of screening adherence.


If hepatocellular carcinoma is detected early enough, it may be cured. Early detection and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma should be familiar to medical workers in order to reduce mortality linked with this malignant tumour. Hepatic resection and transplantation remain the cornerstone curative therapies for patients with HCC. In patients with early-stage tumors and advanced liver disease, transplantation is clearly the treatment of choice with 5-year survival rates of roughly 70%. Liver transplantation, however, is limited by organ shortage and the inherent risk of transplantation and immunosuppression. In patients without cirrhosis or cirrhotic with preserved liver function and absence of portal hypertension Milan criteria, resection remains the treatment of choice when feasible.).

Author Info

Anurag Aggarwal*
Department of Community Medicine and School of Public Health, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, California, United States

Received: 13-Aug-2021 Published: 27-Aug-2021

Copyright:This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.