International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health

ISSN - 1840-4529

Abstract

The Diabetic Foot: A Review

Carlos Javier Vizcaíno Guerrero*, María Alejandra Bastidas Piraquive, Edwin Leandro Sosa Saboyá, Jairo Esteban Velásquez Pedraza, Ana María Herrera Parra, Reagee Myke Arnoldth Gómez Álvarez and Edwin Alejandro Barón Muñoz

Introduction: The prevalence of diabetes continues to be a growing problem throughout the developed world and contributes significantly to the health care burden; the fifteen percent of all people with diabetes will develop diabetic foot ulcers. A severe diabetic foot infection has approximately a 25% risk of ultimately requiring a major lower extremity amputation.

Objective: To conduct a review of Diabetic foot.

Methodology: The search was performed in the databases PUBMED/MEDLINE, EMBASE and Google Scholar with the search terms: Diabetes, Diabetic foot, Neuropathy, Foot ulcers. We selected the most relevant studies on Diabetic foot.

Results: We provided a general description of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical examination, classifications and treatment of Diabetic foot. Diabetic foot ulcer is defined as a full-thickness wound that destroys the deep tissues and develops at a level distal to the ankle and is associated with neurological abnormalities in patients with diabetes. These ulcers can be classified as neuropathic, ischemic or neuro-ischemic. Neuropathy and macroangiopathy are the two main causal mechanisms, while injuries are often the events that precipitate an acute lesión. The main aim of the examination of a diabetic foot is to assess the risk factors for foot ulceration. Imaging modalities used in the evaluation of the diabetic foot include conventional radiography, CT, nuclear medicine scintigraphy, MRI, ultrasonography, angiography and positron emission tomography combined with CT scanning. Uncomplicated neuropathic ulcers will often heal with restriction of weight bearing of the involved extremity and topical therapy with saline impregnated gauze, topical antibiotic ointments, or other similar agents. Those patients who have ulcers with localized signs of clinical infection (mild category) may be treated with oral antibiotics on an outpatient basis, wounds associated with limb-threatening or life-threatening infections (categories moderate or severe) require hospitalization, parenteral antibiotics, vascular and surgical consultation to define revasculation, debridement, or amputation.

Conclusion: The Diabetic foot should be diagnosed and treated effectively to reduce morbidity and mortality.

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