Mouhamadou Nazirou Dodo-Siddo, Mouhamadou Bamba Ndiaye, Malick Bodian, Simon Antoine Sarr, Souhaibou Ndongo, Adama Kane, Alassane Mbaye, Tahirou Iliassou, Habibou Harouna, Maboury Diao, Moustapha SARR, Abdoul Kane, Serigne Abdou BA and Thérèse Moreira Diop
Introduction: IT has been known for many years that the heart may be involved in rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this study is to investigate the electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities in a population of Senegalese patients with rheumatoid arthritis without clinical cardiovascular disease. Patients and method: Seventy three consecutive patients between the age of 18 and 75 years admitted to the internal medicine department of University Hospital Center Aristide Le Dantec in Dakar, Senegal, with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis without clinically evident cardiovascular disease. Each patient had a cardiological assessment which included a history and examination with ECG, echocardiography standard. We conducted laboratory tests (CRP, fibrinogen, ESR, Rheumatoid factors: Latex and Waaler Rose, Anti-CCP, antinuclear factors and anti-ENA antibodies). Data were analyzed using a descriptive study of the different variables with the calculation of proportions for categorical variables, and the positional parameters and dispersion for quantitative variables. Results: Sixty eight female and five patients with rheumatoid arthritis without obvious cardiac events meet the criteria of definition of the ACR 1987 were studied. The mean age was 44.17 ± 14.43 years with extremes of 18 and 75 years. The mean duration of RA was 5.93 ± 4.78 years. The concept of family inflammatory arthritis was reported in 35.60% of cases and almost one in six patients had at least a factor of cardiovascular risk (16.96%). Electrocardiographic findings were dominated by a left axis deviation in 16.44% of patients and 34 patients (46.57%) had left ventricular hypertrophy. Myocardial hyperexcitability was present in 8 patients (11.19%), including 6 premature ventricular found in patients with active RA. Twenty-six patients (35.61%) showed signs consistent with ischemia and / or myocardial injury. The echocardiography abnormalities were dominated by diastolic LV dysfunction (42.46%), increased left ventricular mass in 35.61%. Valvular leaks grades variables been highlighted regarding all orifices but rarely significant. Conclusion: Electrocardiogram and echocardiogram are a sensitive and reliable diagnostic aid for the detection of cardiac lesions in rheumatoid arthritis without clinical cardiovascular events.