Reproductive Health Implications of Chronic Diseases and The | 102318

Health Economics & Outcome Research: Open Access

ISSN - 2471-268X


Reproductive Health Implications of Chronic Diseases and Their Treatment: A Narrative Review

Rehana Shaikh, Tejasvitaa Ravilla Sridhar, Preksha Shah, Chiraag Ashokkumar* and Salyl Dobhal

Reproductive health is profoundly influenced by chronic diseases, impacting pregnancy outcomes. This research examines the effects of psychiatric disorders, celiac disease, gestational diabetes, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and autoimmune hepatitis on reproductive health and pregnancy outcomes. Psychiatric disorders increase pregnancy-related risks, including placental abnormalities and neonatal maladaptation. The benefits of antipsychotic use during pregnancy outweigh the risks, but further evidence is needed to inform guidelines. Celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder triggered by gluten consumption, is associated with gynecological and obstetric disorders. Untreated celiac disease can lead to reproductive complications such as delayed menarche, earlier menopause, secondary amenorrhea, and spontaneous abortions. Strict adherence to a gluten-free diet mitigates these issues, emphasizing the importance of treatment. The relationship between gestational diabetes and stillbirth rates is debated. Modern obstetric care has reduced stillbirth risk, but the extent of gestational diabetes' contribution remains unclear. Further research is necessary for comprehensive understanding. Inflammatory bowel diseases, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, pose risks to pregnancy outcomes. Previous studies found higher rates of preterm delivery, low birth weight, and congenital malformations among mothers with these conditions. This study aims to provide comprehensive and reliable information on pregnancy outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease. Autoimmune hepatitis, primarily affecting young women, raises concerns during pregnancy due to cirrhosis and hormonal dysfunction. Stillbirths and premature births can occur, but the incidence of congenital malformations is not significantly increased. Careful management and monitoring are essential. This research contributes to understanding how chronic diseases affect reproductive health. Further research is needed to elucidate mechanisms and develop evidence-based guidelines. Improved knowledge will enhance reproductive health outcomes for individuals with chronic diseases.