This study will propose a new theory of leadership phenomenon by comparing natural mechanisms in human society with those existing in the animal world. Animals’ social systems have similar structure, dominance, influence, manipulations (Machiavelli’s), yet have no stereotypes and are not as complex as human society. Observation of animal social systems and extrapolation on human society leads to a fresh perspective on the phenomenon of leadership: the role-based theory of leadership. This theory can guide subsequent studies, which may test such conclusions as the advantage of natural competitive selection of leaders over artificial breeding in real organizations. The role-based leadership theory proposes to shift the focus of attention of researchers from trying to understand who became a leader and why, to understanding leadership as a continued struggle of rivals.