Introduction: Orthodontic treatment has an important role in enhancing esthetics, function, and self-esteem in patients. However, it may also be associated with the development of white spot lesions and gingival inflammation especially in patients with poor oral hygiene.
Objective: The purpose of this systematic review was to compare the effects of different orthodontic appliances on the oral microbiome.
Results: Regardless of the type of appliance, the orthodontic treatment caused qualitative and quantitative changes in the oral microbiome leading to an increase in the counts of cariogenic bacteria and periodontal pathogens.
Conclusion: The selected articles reported that, even though both aligners and fixed appliances result in dysbiosis of the oral microbiome, aligners have the most favorable effects on oral hygiene and periodontal health.