Introduction: Guadeloupe, a French West Indies island, has been fiercely affected by two large waves of COVID. Therapeutic approach was different between the two waves in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We aimed to compare the two different periods in terms of characteristics and outcomes and to evaluate risk factors associated with 60-day mortality in our overall cohort.
Methods: All consecutive patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia and requiring oxygen support admitted in our ICU unit of University Hospital of Guadeloupe were prospectively included. Patients were treated during the first wave with a combination of Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin and during the second wave with dexamethasone and reinforced anticoagulation.
Results: In our cohort, 187 patients were included, 31 during the first one and 156 during the second. Patients were mostly male (69%) with a median age of 64 years old. Patients tend to be younger during the second wave and body mass index was higher (respectively 31 vs. 27 Kg/m2, p=0.01). Overall mortality at Day 60 was high (45%) and not different between the two waves. Among patients under mechanical ventilation risk factors associated with death in a multivariate analysis were a high number of comorbidities, a high level of SOFA score and the delay of Invasive Mechanical Ventilation (IMV) onset after admission in ICU (OR=1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.4).
Conclusion: Although therapeutics approach evolves, COVID-19 severe pneumonia is still associated with a high mortality rate in ICU.