Immune Recognition Strategies: Innate and Adaptive

Medical Reports & Case Studies

ISSN - 2572-5130

editorial article - (2022) Volume 7, Issue 3

Immune Recognition Strategies: Innate and Adaptive

*Correspondence: Eugene Clarke, Editorial Office, Medical Reports and Case Studies, Belgium, Email:

Author info »


The body's initial line of defence against pathogens entering the body is the innate immune system. It reacts to all bacteria and other things in the same way. It ensures that bacteria that have entered the skin through a minor wound are recognised and eliminated within a few hours on the spot. However, the innate immune system's ability to halt pathogens from spreading is restricted. If the innate immune system fails to eradicate the germs, the adaptive immune system takes over. It is designed to attack the exact sort of germ that is causing the sickness. It also has the advantage of being able to "remember" germs, allowing the adaptive immune system to respond faster the next time a known germ is met. The adaptive immune system may take a few days to respond the first time it comes into contact with the pathogen, but the body can respond quickly the next time. The second infection is frequently undetectable, or at the very least less severe.

The processes and receptors used for immune identification are the most significant difference between the innate and adaptive immune systems. T-cell receptors and B-cell receptors are created somatically in the adaptive immune system during the development of T and B cells, giving each lymphocyte a structurally unique receptor. These receptors are not pre-programmed to identify any specific antigen because they are not encoded in the germline. Antigen receptor binding sites occur as a result of random genetic causes, therefore the receptor repertoire encompasses binding sites that can react with harmless environmental antigens and self-antigens as well as pathogenic pathogens. When the antigens are self or environmental antigens, activation of the adaptive immune response can be damaging to the host, as immune responses to such antigens can lead to autoimmune disorders and allergies.

Pattern-recognition receptors

The receptors of the innate immune system expressed in the germline are distinct from antigen receptors in various respects. They are found on a variety of innate immune effector cells, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells, which are professional antigen-presenting cells. Pattern-recognition receptor expression is not clonal, in the sense that all receptors exhibited by cells of a given kind (e.g., macrophages) have the same specificities. Patternrecognition receptors are divided into numerous families based on their structural similarities. Pattern recognition is frequently aided by leucine-rich repeat domains, calcium-dependent lectin domains, and scavenger-receptor protein domains.

Pattern-recognition receptors are classified into three categories based on their function: secreted, endocytic, and signalling. Secreted pattern-recognition molecules act as opsonins, attaching to microbial cell walls and signalling them to the complement system and phagocytes for recognition. On the surface of phagocytes are endocytic pattern-recognition receptors. These receptors mediate the uptake and delivery of pathogens into lysosomes, where they are killed after identifying pathogenassociated molecular patterns on a microbial cell. Pathogen-derived proteins can subsequently be digested, and the resultant peptide can then be displayed on the macrophage's surface by major histocompatibility-complex (MHC) molecules.

Toll receptors

Drosophila's first toll receptor was discovered as part of a signalling cascade that regulates dorsoventral polarity in embryos. The toll gene encodes a transmembrane protein with a large extracellular domain containing leucine-rich repeats, according to the toll gene's sequence. Surprisingly, the toll protein's cytoplasmic domain shared a sequence with the mammalian interleukin-1 receptor's cytoplasmic domain. Furthermore, both the human interleukin-1 receptor and the drosophila toll receptor activate nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) transcription factors. Toll-like receptors are homologues of drosophila toll that have been discovered in mammals (TLRs). The discovery that TLR4 is a receptor for lipopolysaccharide in mice was the first evidence linking it to the innate immune system. However, TLR4 isn't the only protein involved in lipopolysaccharide recognition. Lipopolysaccharide initially binds with a serum protein called lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, which then transmits lipopolysaccharide to CD14, a glycosyl phosphoinositol-tailed receptor on macrophages and B cells. TLR4 mutations have been found in both the ectodomains and the cytoplasmic domains, although knowledge about allelic variants of human toll genes is currently scarce. It's unclear whether these mutations alter TLR4's detection of lipopolysaccharides and infection susceptibility.

Innate immunity and disease

By engaging pattern recognition receptors, cells can recognise generic products of viruses, bacteria, fungus, or wounded tissue. Innate immune cells respond quickly to this interaction to keep commensals in check, combat infections, and/or repair the damage.

ILC stands for innate lymphoid cells.

  • Natural killer cells (NK cells) are cells that attack and kill other cells in the body.
  • Urinary bladder epithelial cells (UBEC) are cells that line the inside of the bladder.
  • IECs (intestinal epithelial cells) are cells that line the inside of the intestine.

The first type of mutation is thought to cause a variety of immune weaknesses. The second sort of mutation would cause inflammatory reactions, and hence potentially have a role in several inflammatory disorders, such as asthma, allergies, arthritis, and autoimmune. Indeed, mutations in macrophage mannose receptors and mannan-binding lectin have been linked to increased susceptibility to infection by some pathogens in both people and mice.


An ancient form of host defence must have appeared early in the evolution of multicellular organisms because many genes 

involved in innate host defence are found not only in vertebrates and invertebrate animals but also in plants. Higher-order vertebrates also have an adaptive immune system, which operates on entirely different principles than innate immunity. However, the failure to discriminate foreign antigens from self-antigens comes at a cost. When the innate immune system recognises these structures, it releases costimulators, cytokines, and chemokines, which recruit and activate antigen-specific cells and trigger adaptive immunological responses.

Author Info

Editorial Office, Medical Reports and Case Studies, Belgium

Received: 03-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. mrcs-22-58527; Editor assigned: 11-Mar-2022, Pre QC No. mrcs-22-58527 (PQ); Reviewed: 16-Mar-2022, QC No. mrcs-22-58527(Q); Revised: 23-May-2022, Manuscript No. mrcs-22-58527 (R); Published: 31-Mar-2022, DOI: 10.4172/2572- 5130.

Copyright:This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.