Bioenergy and Bioresource:Open Access

Orthodontics Review Articles

Soft tissues injuries are presented commonly in association with dental trauma. Areas normally affected are lips, buccal mucosa, gingivae, frenum and tongue. The most common injuries are lips and gingivae. For lips, important to rule out presence of foreign objects in wounds and lacerations through careful examination. A radiograph can be taken to identify any potential foreign objects.[5][6]Gingivae lacerations that are small normally heals spontaneously and do not require any intervention. However, this can be one of the clinical presentation of an alveolar fracture. Gingivae bleeding especially around the margins may suggest injury to the periodontal ligament of the tooth.The facial nerve and parotid duct should be examined for any potential damage when the buccal mucosa is involved.Deep tissue wounds should be repaired in layers with sutures that are resorbable.Trauma to primary teeth occurs most commonly at the age of 2 to 3 years, during the development of motor coordination.[7] When primary teeth are injured, the resulting treatment prioritises the safety of the adult tooth,[7] and should avoid any risk of damaging the permanent successors.[8] This is because the root apex of an injured primary tooth lies near the tooth germ of the adult tooth. Therefore, a displaced primary tooth will be removed if it is found to have encroached upon the developing adult tooth germ.[8] If this happens, parents should be advised of possible complications such as enamel hypoplasia, hypocalcification, crown/root dilaceration, or disruptions in tooth eruption sequence.Potential sequelae can involve pulpal necrosis, pulp obliteration and root resorption.Necrosis is the most common complication and an assessment is generally made based on the colour supplemented with radiograph monitoring. A change in colour may mean that the tooth is still vital but if this persists it is likely to be non-vital.

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