Journal of Microbiology and Immunology

Open Access Articles Diagnostic Microbiology

Diagnostic microbiology concentrates on the laboratory analysis of clinical specimens in cases when an infectious disease is suspected. The diagnosis of staphylococcal infections may involve clinical specimens isolated from humans, animals, or food products, as well as samples collected from the environment. A presented overview of the diagnosis of staphylococcal infections includes the following topics: specimen collection and direct specimen Gram staining; microscopic examination of Gram stained material; inoculation into general-purpose media as well as into selective-differential media; incubation, colony morphology identification, Gram staining, and isolation of pure culture; catalase testing; furazolidone susceptibility testing; detection of free coagulase and bound coagulase; identification of bacterial species based on biochemical tests; detection of resistance mechanisms (beta-lactamases, methicillin resistance, macrolide, and lincozamine resistance, or, the MLSB resistance mechanism); and antibiogram execution. Automated methods applied to staphylococcal diagnostics are presented.Diagnostic microbiology has been developing to rapidly detect and accurately identify implicated microorganisms in test specimens through a variety of techniques. Technologic changes have made constant and enormous progress in the various areas including bacteriology, mycology, mycobacteriology, parasitology, and virology during the past two decades in the field of diagnostic microbiology. The physical structure of laboratories, staffing patterns, work flow, and turnaround time have all been profoundly influenced by technical advances. The implementation of nucleic acid amplification-based molecular techniques provides complementary, rapid, and on-demand diagnosis services. These changes will continue, and lead diagnostic microbiology inevitably to a modern discipline, which can face any challenges in the future.Diagnostic microbiology is the study of microbial identification. Since the discovery of the germ theory of disease, scientists have been finding ways to harvest specific organisms. Using methods such as differential media or genome sequencing, physicians and scientists can observe novel functions in organisms for more effective and accurate diagnosis of organisms. Methods used in diagnostic microbiology are often used to take advantage of a particular difference in organisms attain information about what species it might be, often through a reference of previous studies. New studies provide information that other scientists can reference back to so scientists can have a baseline knowledge of the organism he or she are working with.When culturing microbes, different organisms require different environments for optimal growing conditions.Atmosphere and length of incubationWhen culturing microbes, different organisms require different environments for optimal growing conditions.Aerobic vs anaerobicAnaerobic organisms require an oxygen free environment. When culturing anaerobic microbes, broths are often flushed with nitrogen gas to extinguish oxygen present, and growth can also occur on media in a chamber without oxygen present.Sodium resazurin can be added to indicate redox potential.Cultures are to be incubated in an oxygen free environment for 48 hours at 35oC before growth is examined.Anaerobic bacteria collection can come from a variety of sources in patient samples, including blood, bile, bone marrow, cerebrospinal fluid, direct lung aspirate, tissue biopsies from a normally sterile site, fluid from a normally sterile site (like a joint), dental, abscess, abdominal or pelvic abscess, knife, gunshot, or surgical wound, or severe burn.

Relevant Topics in Medical Sciences

+44 1704 335730