Journal of Neurology & Neurophysiology

ISSN - 2155-9562

Neuronal Structure

The primary components of the neuron are the soma (cell body), the axon (a long slender projection that conducts electrical impulses away from the cell body), dendrites (tree-like structures that receive messages from other neurons), and synapses (specialized junctions between neurons). Neurons, also known as nerve cells, send and receive signals from your brain. While neurons have a lot in common with other types of cells, they're structurally and functionally unique. Specialized projections called axons allow neurons to transmit electrical and chemical signals to other cells. A neuron is a nerve cell that is the basic building block of the nervous system. Neurons are similar to other cells in the human body in a number of ways, but there is one key difference between neurons and other cells. Neurons are specialized to transmit information throughout the body. For all practical purposes, when our neurons die, they are lost forever. ... These "extra" neurons are then destroyed or commit suicide. This process of programmed cell death occurs through a series of events termed apoptosis and is an appropriate and essential event during brain development. The average human brain has about 86 billion neurons (or nerve cells) and many more neuroglia (or glial cells) which serve to support and protect the neurons (although see the end of this page for more information on glial cells). Contrary to popular belief, our neurons are able to regenerate, even in adults. This process is called neurogenesis. ... This process has been observed in the sub ventricular area of the brain, where the nerve stem cells are able to differentiate themselves into adult populations of neurons.

Relevant Topics in Neuroscience & Psychology