Bioenergy and Bioresource:Open Access


Nanoscale electronics and photonics are becoming increasingly paramount areas of research which have exhilarated politicians and magnetized a sizably voluminous number of scientists, engineers and graduate students. Recent developments in nanoscale photonics plasmonics, near-field photonics and optical metamaterials) might lead to incipient applications such as high-resolution lithography and heat-localized nanoparticles for cancer treatment. Likewise, on the electronics front, spintronics, graphene electronics and topological insulators might lead to high-density recollection and high-speed transistors. By extrapolation, the future of nanoscale electrophotonics could be on the horizon.Several nanoscale multilayered materials have been prepared. Techniques of Rutherford backscattering, electron microscopy and microanalysis and other metallurgical implements have been used to investigate wear resistant, scratch resistant, microhardness, and spark erosion properties of these nanoscale multilayered materials. Preliminary results denote that nanoscale multilayered materials with amended thermo mechanical, properties can be synthesized for application in the EM gun system. Application of ion beam technology for the synthesis of gradient materials appears to have great potential for design of incipient materials with amended properties to be utilized in fabrication of many armament materials. It is additionally debated that biologic propertiesare not constrained to sizes less than 100 nm. The pharmaceutical industry recommends 1–1000 nm, for the purposes of dosimetry and toxicologic assessment It is argued that toxicology is only germane to MNs of less than 30 nm. A review of a variety of inorganic nanoparticles more preponderant than 30 nm showed that they do not show properties that would require regulatory scrutiny beyond that required for their bulk counterparts

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