Bioenergy and Bioresource:Open Access


Innovations are the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, inarticulated needs or existing market needs. It is proficient through more effective products, processes, services, technologies, or new ideas that are readily available to markets, governments and society. In biorefinery systems where microalgae are used as staple , important biofuels like biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas are produced and valuable chemical substances utilized in fields like pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries are produced. Although there are small to mid-size commercial microalgae production systems for high value human nutritional supplements worldwide, large-scale commercialization of microalgal systems for commodities are limited by the low economic returns on the products generated. Continuing research and testing of different production strategies and scenarios represents the best path to achieve technical and economic feasibility of microalgae to bioproducts. Commercial cultivation of microalgae in outdoor open ponds or raceways is taken into account to possess lower costs and thus more economically attractive than closed system photobioreactors. Such open ponds systems are often built upstream of wastewater treatment plants or beside agricultural facilities. Nutrient growth media requirements in these ponds can be fulfilled using municipal wastewater or agricultural residue.

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