Journal of Microbiology and Immunology

Intestinal Microbiome

Recently, the pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory disease such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic inflammatory arthritis, asthma, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has been reported to be related to the dysbiosis of gut microbiota. The contribution of special bacteria for the development of those diseases has been elucidated by disease animal models such as germ-free mice. Gut microbiota-targeted treatment for systemic inflammatory diseases such as fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), and probiotics has been now reported. Though there are several issues to be understood, these treatments have been highlighted as an innovative approach to intractable systemic inflammatory disease. In the present review, recent reports regarding the relation between gut microbiota and systemic inflammatory diseases are discussed with treatments to target gut microbiota. Macrophage-mediated inflammation is thought to have a causal role in osteoarthritis-related pain and severity, and has been suggested to be triggered by endotoxins produced by the gastrointestinal microbiome. Here we investigate the relationship between joint pain and the gastrointestinal microbiome composition, and osteoarthritis-related knee pain in the Rotterdam Study; a large population based cohort study. We show that abundance of Streptococcus species is associated with increased knee pain, which we validate by absolute quantification of Streptococcus species.  

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