Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the most common application of immunostaining. It involves the process of selectively identifying antigens (proteins) in cells
of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. IHC takes its name from the roots "immuno", in reference to antibodies used in the procedure, and "histo", meaning tissue (compare to immunocytochemistry). Albert Coons conceptualized and first implemented the procedure in 1941. Immunohistochemical staining is widely used in the diagnosis of abnormal cells
such as those found in cancerous tumors. Specific molecular markers
are characteristic of particular cellular events such as proliferation or cell death (apoptosis). Immunohistochemistry
is also widely used in basic research to understand the distribution and localization of biomarkers
and differentially expressed proteins in different parts of a biological tissue.
Relevant Topics in Medical Sciences