Human fertilization is the union of a human egg
and sperm, usually occurring in the ampulla of the fallopian tube.The result of this union is the production of a zygote cell, or fertilized egg, initiating prenatal development. Scientists discovered the dynamics of human fertilization in the nineteenth century. The process of fertilization involves a sperm fusing with an ovum. The most common sequence begins with ejaculation during copulation, follows with ovulation, and finishes with fertilization. Various exceptions to this sequence are possible, including artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, external ejaculation without copulation, or copulation shortly after ovulation. Upon encountering the secondary oocyte, the acrosome of the sperm produces enzymes
which allow it to burrow through the outer jelly coat of the egg. The sperm plasma then fuses with the egg's plasma membrane, triggering the sperm head to disconnect from its flagellum as the egg
travels down the Fallopian tube to reach the uterus.In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a process by which egg cells
are fertilized by sperm outside the womb, After the sperm enters the cytoplasm of the oocyte (also called ovocyte), the tail and the outer coating of the sperm disintegrate and the cortical reaction takes place, preventing other sperm from fertilizing the same egg. The oocyte now undergoes its second meiotic division producing the haploid ovum and releasing a polar body. The sperm nucleus then fuses with the ovum, enabling fusion of their genetic material. When the sperm enters the vitelline space, receptors on the sperm head called Izumo1 bind to Juno on the oocyte membrane. Once it’s bound 2 blocks to polyspermy then occur. After approximately 40 minutes, the other Juno receptors on the oocyte are lost from the membrane, causing it to no longer be fusogenic. Additionally, the cortical reaction will happen which is caused by ovastacin binding and cleaving ZP2 receptors on the zona pellucida. These two blocks of polyspermy are what prevent the zygote from having too much DNA.
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