International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology

Economy Policy Innovation

Citations are important for a journal to get impact factor. Impact factor is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to recent articles published in the journal. The impact of the journal is influenced by impact factor, the journals with high impact factor are considered more important than those with lower ones. Impact factor plays a major role for the particular journal. Journal with higher impact factor is considered to be more important than other ones. Impact factor can be calculated as average number of citation divided by recent cited articles published in 2 years. In Australia, the federal (central) and State (regional) governments share constitutional responsibility for aspects of science and innovation policy. In practice, the federal government has tended to overshadow the States both in funding and policy for research and innovation. It can be argued that we are now seeing the strong rebirth of regionalism (at least at the State level) as far as government support for science, technology and knowledge‐based industries is concerned. The paper traces the growth of regional innovation policies through examples of initiatives from South Australia and other regions and examines the respective contributions of the State and federal governments. The character of State government support has evolved over the last 15 years, from sponsoring grand ‘technology citadels’ to today's strategies that take a more bottom‐up approach to building intense innovation environments, local clusters and knowledge hubs. Some of these trends reflect the influence of the global knowledge economy on regional industries, while others (notably the relative decline of the federal government as an R&D performer) are peculiarities of the Australian innovation system. The outcome is a significant evolution in Australia's innovation system, one which parallels responses to globalisation in other countries and suggests a different – but not diminished – role for public sector innovation policy. Increased investment in agricultural research could contribute to sustainable development goals and benefit farmers, consumers, the environment, and the economy. This paper provides recent evidence and a critical assessment of the evolving Canadian canola crop development and innovation policy and compares it to the wheat and pulse sectors that differ in degree of biotechnology adoption, seeded acreage, intellectual property rights, and private sector involvement. This study also assesses how crop characteristics and technological changes affect future optimal public policy. A number of innovation policies are discussed that could stimulate further growth within the crop sector. This article investigates Russia's historical and current innovation initiatives through the lens of institutional theory, utilizing the triple‐helix innovation model, which we have extended to include the context of Russian culture. The Russian government has embarked upon a national innovation policy and has committed billions of dollars with the goal of developing a knowledge‐based economy to enhance participation in the global arena, while simultaneously diversifying away from energy and natural resources. Historically, Russia has typically not succeeded with innovation beyond the idea, and sometimes product development, stages. Our primary conclusion is that the inadequacy of formal and informal institutional support has created historical barriers in Russia, some of which are currently being addressed to develop an innovation ecosystem encompassing a more supportive institutional infrastructure. The article concludes with implications for US firms and universities involved with innovation activities in Russia.

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