Each of these states is associated with characteristic neurobiological changes in the brain
that are amenable to modification by pharmacological agents. Drug reward is associated with the brain’s motivational system through activation of the mesolimbic dopamine
pathway and related limbic structures including the amygdala, hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, which regulate responses to natural reinforcers, such as food, sex and social interaction . The treatment of addictions involves promoting the avoidance of psychoactive substances, developing coping skills, and improving self-esteem and self-efficacy. Pharmacotherapies can act through several mechanisms to reduce the impetus for drug use.
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