Two Cases of Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia Combined with M | 46736

Medical Reports & Case Studies

ISSN - 2572-5130


Two Cases of Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia Combined with Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance and a Literature Review

Fengling M, Lijia Z, Wei Z, Xiaohui G, Lina Z and Jianyong L

Objective: To describe myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/ myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) combined with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) in order to investigate the potential association between these 2 diseases. Methods: Two cases of confirmed chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) combined with MGUS were reported here. In addition, reports related to cases with combined MDS or MPN with MGUS were reviewed. Results: The first case was a 77-year-old man whose routine blood tests showed abnormal hemogram results. The diagnosis was CMML combined with IgM monoclonal gammopathy, and the disease course was 4 years. The CMML gradually progressed, and the patient presented with anemia, thrombocytopenia, autoimmune hemolysis, and an increase in the number of immature cells in the bone marrow. Although the MGUS caused fluctuations in the concentrations of IgM, no IgM-associated organ damage was observed. Eventually, this patient died of lung infection. The second case was a 78-year-old man who sought treatment because of fever and a cough. An increase in the number of monocytes was discovered in the peripheral blood. Bone marrow smear results suggested obvious active granulocytes and an increase in the percentages of promyelocytes, myelocytes, and metamyelocytes. Unhealthy granulocytes and immature monocytes could also be observed, and the percentage of monocytes was increased. In addition, serum IgG levels were increased, and immunofixation electrophoresis results showed IgG-κ type M proteins. The diagnosis was CMML combined with IgG monoclonal gammopathy. These diseases were stable, and follow-up was conducted for 1 year after diagnosis. Conclusion: The cases in this study combined with those that were reviewed from the relevant literature indicated that the presence of the above 2 tumors in 1 patient might not be a coincidence. The development of the 2 diseases in case 1 was different, and it was speculated that they might have had different clonal origins. Whether CMML may serve as a risk factor for MGUS as well as the function of clonal plasma cells in the occurrence and development of MDS or MDS/MPN still requires further studies on a large number of clinical cases.