Li Zou, Md Rezaul Karim and Yun-fu Wang
B cells have both positive and negative regulatory roles during immune responses; they have role in the pathogenesis of various neuroimmunological diseases such as Myasthenia gravis (MG), Multiple sclerosis (MS), Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS). B cells can positively regulate immune responses by producing antigen-specific antibody, inducing optimal T cell activation and cytokine production. The pathogenic role of B cells and autoantibodies in neuroimmunological diseases, as reviewed here, provides information towards the research progress in the progressive role of B cells in neuroimmunological diseases. It is expected that the ongoing research on B cells and neuroimmunological diseases will contribute to the clinical applications, and better understanding of the etiology of neuroimmunogical diseases.