Acute sensorineural hearing loss is commonly caused by peripheral vestibulocochlear disorders such as sudden deafness, Meniere’s disease, and Ramsay Hunt syndrome, but is rarely due to infarction of the vertebrobasilar artery. In this report, a case of right anterior inferior cerebellar artery syndrome presenting with sudden deafness and vertigo is described in order to feature acute sensorineural hearing loss due to vertebrobasilar artery ischemia, and sensorineural hearing loss due to vertebrobasilar artery ischemia is reviewed and discussed. A 79-year-old man presented with right acute sensorineural hearing loss preceded by occasional, minute-long periods of dizziness without cranial neural symptoms other than vestibulocochlear symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed infarction of the right anterior inferior cerebellar artery territory. The vertebrobasilar artery supplies the vestibulocochlear organ, brainstem, and cerebellum, whose abnormalities are related to vestibulocochlear symptoms. Vertigo is a major symptom associated with vertebrobasilar artery ischemia. Further, acute sensorineural hearing
loss is caused by hypoperfusion of the vertebrobasilar artery. Vertigo and/or acute sensorineural hearing loss could be a prodrome of subsequent infarction of the vertebrobasilar artery territory. The artery most often responsible for acute sensorineural hearing loss is the anterior inferior cerebellar artery, whereas ischemia of the basilar artery, the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, and the superior cerebellar artery rarely cause acute sensorineural hearing loss. Patients with acute sensorineural hearing loss who are at a high risk of cerebrovascular disease must be examined with imaging tools such as MRI.