Felix-Martin Werner and Rafael Covenas
Here, we describe the alterations of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that act on specific subreceptors in the
brain areas involved in generalized epilepsy. A neurotransmitter imbalance between GABAergic and serotonergic
neurons with hypoactivity and glutaminergic and dopaminergic neurons with hyperactivity is described. Considering
the alterations in neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, neural networks in the hippocampus, hypothalamus,
thalamus and cortex are described. The mechanisms of action of some recently developed antiepileptic drugs are
addressed. In sum, a multimodal antiepileptic pharmacotherapy acting at several specific subreceptors is suggested.
We recommend the development of an antiepileptic drug, that exerts simultaneously a GABAA agonistic and an
NMDA antagonistic effect.