There is no doubt that atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in the inner wall of the arteries caused by the laws of hydrodynamics and environmental chemicals present into the bloodstream. Atheromatous plaques located at the mouths of the perforating and collateral arteries originated from the supraclinoid carotids, distal end of the basilar artery and the V4 segments of the vertebral arteries, usually cause neurological events of insidious onset, undulating course and progressive. In other cases it can manifest as transient ischemic attacks. For this reason, reducing the size of atheroma in the arteries with mild or moderate stenosis through medical treatment is the goal to follow to cause vascular recanalization and thus, increase the blood flow in the ischemic areas. Therefore, an antiinflammatory therapy is indicated against atheroma formation. Previous clinical results suggest that high doses of aspirin are required to prevent or reduce the formation of atheromatous plaques, due to their anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic effects. While in patients with severe stenosis and/or thrombosis in the perforating and small arteries, omental transplantation is indicated, because this tissue causes revascularization in the underlying and adjacent areas to the omentum. In conclusion, without vascular recanalization or revascularization in the ischemic zone, no neuronal regeneration or neurogenesis occurs.