Leonard LL Yeo, Jonathan YY Ong, Benjamin R Wakerley and Rahul Rathakrishnan
There have been many developments in the management of patients with epilepsy ranging from diagnostic modalities to pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. This review discusses several advances which the authors believe will have a significant impact on how such patients will be managed in the coming years. Electroencephalography [EEG] remains the main diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with seizure disorders. The novel discovery of high frequency EEG oscillations introduces new concepts of epileptogenicity. Also, techniques that couple EEG with imaging data will be discussed. The early intervention to abort seizures using a method that is easily administered by paramedic staff in the field has been shown to result in more rapid seizure cessation we elaborate on the pre-hospital management. Epilepsy surgery which has revolutionized the treatment of medically refractory patients is invasive and often resective in nature. We discuss the emerging science of neurostimulation as an alternative and potentially similarly efficacious technique.